HISTORY OF ZINES
Press: One could argue that in their loosest form zines exist since
people began to write, copy and self-publish. Zines stand in this long tradition
of self-publication. Historically, they could even be traced back to 1517 when
Martin Luther published his "zine", the "Ninety-five Theses,"
a time when Johannes Gutenberg had just invented the printing press and self-publication
began to spread. Self-publication has always been a political medium and frequently
used to express resistance, for example during the French Revolution.
- Art, Artists' Books, and Mail Art: Self-publishing has
been a method closely associated with several art movements in the 20th century.
In journals, magazines, leaflets, and mail-art, Dadaist, Surrealist, Fluxus and
Situationist artists employed techniques such as collages, bricolages, and detournment
of magazine images and had a strong influence on zine editors later on.
Since the 1990s, many young artists use zines to create their own creative spaces,
distribution networks and audiences independent of the established gallery and
- Science Fiction Fanzines (1930-1960).
As a distinct form, zines originated in the 1930's in the United States when
fans of science fiction began to publish and trade their own stories. The term
"fanzine" became recognized as the abbreviation of "fan magazine"
and later on was shortened to "zine."
- Punk Zines: In the 1970s, when punk rock music emerged, the Do-It-Yourself
(DIY) ethos found a fertile ground in zines. This ethos combined with the increasing
accessibility of photocopy technology fueled an explosion of zines.
- (Riot) Grrrl Zines: When in 1991 the riot
grrrl movement emerged out of the alternative and punk music scene in the United
States, thousands of young women began to produce personal and political zines
with explicitly feminist themes. Bikini Kill called in their manifesto upon young
women to form bands, to mutually learn and teach instruments and to publish zines.
some women ("grrrls") who grew out of the riot grrrl movement have chosen
to reclaim the title and call themselves "ladies." Their politics remain
devoted to assertive feminism and activism.
E-Zines: During the 1990s the zine network expanded enormously into
the realm of e-zines. In addition to the typical objectives, these online zines
serve often as resource and network sites. But although the Internet makes e-zines
available worldwide and allows geographically isolated people to correspond, one
should not forget that it is still a privilege to have access to computer-technology.
Zine Book: http://www.zinebook.com/directory/zine-history.html
Heath Row: From Fandom to Feminism: An Analysis of the Zine Press (1997) http://www.geocities.com/echozinedistro/history.html
do zines look like?
Who does zines?
TYPES OF ZINES and
THE INTERNATIONAL ZINE
COMMUNICATION AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORK:
New Pollution: national print zine directory (Australia) -
[electronic zines] (or 'Cybergrrrl zines')
Geekgirl: Australian, network platform,
Come on grrrl! Brazilian e-zine http://geocities.com/comeongrrrl/
Bust - http://www.bust.com/
Venus - http://www.venuszine.com/
New Moon: The Magazine for Girls and Their Dreams - http://www.newmoon.org/
Action Girl - http://www.houseoffun.com/action/index.html
DIY comix: An instructional pamphlet
Comics Resources: http://www.zinebook.com/directory/comic-books.html
and Resource Zines [online
Zine Guide - http://www.zineguide.net/
Zine book - http://zinebook.com/
Zinesters - http://www.zinesters.net/
Zinesters Travel Guide -http://www.zinesters.net/travel/index.html
Zine World - http://www.undergroundpress.org/
Queer zine explosion - http://www.io.com/~larrybob/qze.html
Grrrl Zine Network - http://www.grrrlzines.net/
Stolen Sharpie Revolution - http://www.microcosmpublishing.com/
Book Your Own Fuckin' Life - http://www.byofl.org/
Slug & Lettuce: A Zine Supporting The Do-It-Yourself Ethics Of The Punk Community
Distros [distribution service provider/mailorder catalogs]
zine distros: http://www.grrrlzines.net/zines/distros.htm
Microcosm Publishing: http://microcosmpublishing.com/
Grrrl Style! Distro: http://grrrlstyle.org/
- Online mailing lists, message boards and live journal communities:
Edgy-catin Mama: http://pub15.ezboard.com/btheedgycatinmamas
Pander Forum: http://messageboard.panderzinedistro.com/cgi/ikonboard.cgi
Zine Yahoo groups (mailing lists): http://groups.yahoo.com/search?query=zines&submit=Search
Stolen Sharpie Live Journal community: http://www.livejournal.com/community/stolensharpie/
Zine archives: http://www.zinebook.com/directory/zine-archives.html
Zine Libraries: http://www.zinebook.com/resource/libes.html
Independent Publishing Resource Center (Portland) - http://www.iprc.org/about.php
SDSU: West Coast Zine Archive (San Diego): http://infodome.sdsu.edu/about/depts/spcollections/rarebooks/zinesfindingaid.shtml
Che Café Zine Library (San Diego): http://checafe.ucsd.edu/zines.html
Zine gatherings, festivals and conferences
Portland Zine Symposium -
Allied Media Conference (Bowling Green)- http://www.clamormagazine.org/amc/
- Zine exhibits
Page Me - http://www.spacesgallery.org/aboutpm.html
The Bookmobile - Mobilivre - http://www.mobilivre.org/
Grrrl Zines A-Go-Go (San Diego): http://www.grrrlzines.net/agogo.htm
What are zines about?
Personal and Political
rock start with words (US)
Framing Historical Theft (Philippines)
Pretty Ugly (Australia) - http://www.pretty-ugly.com/
Music - Punk [fanzines]
Girls Guide to Touring (US)
Venus Zine (US)
Rockrgrl (US) - http://www.rockrgrl.com/
Catch That Beat! (Japan) - http://www.indiepages.com/ctbgirl/
Girl Conspiracy (Sweden)
riot grrrl Europe - http://riotgrrrleurope.net
grrrl: rebel (Malaysia) - http://grrrlzines.net/interviews/grrrlrebel.htm
Riot Grrrl International Message Board - http://users.boardnation.com/%7Ecucalips/index.php
DIY - art & crafts & hobbies
France and ambers apartment (US)
Ladyfriend zine (US) - http://ladyfriend.homestead.com/
Arts & crafts revolution (US)
glue magazine (US) - http://www.gluemagazine.com/
food geek (US)
Cruiser - a zine about cruiser
Travelling Shoes (US)
Politics and Activism
Clamor Magazine (US) - http://www.clamormagazine.org/
The CIA makes Fiction unexciting (US)
Figure 8 (US)
Abuse - Violence Against Women
Bendita: latin's women initiative against
violence towards women (Brazil) - http://www.benditazine.com.br/
Fight Back! (Sweden)
Women's Self-Defense: Stories and Strategies of Survival
Take Back the News! (US) http://www.takebackthenews.net/
Mothering - feminist parenting
Hip mama - the parenting zine (US) - http://www.hipmama.com/
East village inky (US) - http://www.ayunhalliday.com/inky/
Mother Rebel (US)
Queer / Trans / Lesbianism
The Urban Hermitt (US)
Mental and Physical Health
Doris: DIY antidepression guide (US)
blind (US) - http://www.drivingblind.org
Ethnicity and Race
Bamboo Girl (US) - http://www.bamboogirl.com
Evolution of a race riot (US) - http://www.worsethanqueer.com/slander/zine.html
Big Boots (Canada) - http://bigboots.shemadethis.com/
Nothing to be said here (US)
I was a Teenage Mormon (US)
do young people make zines?
are zines important?
Zines in classrooms / zine workshops:
If more time available
- making a zine together: handing out zines, students choose
a zine, take them home, review them, discuss topics in class, vote on one or everyone
writes about an issue that is of interest to her or him, responsible for 2-4 pages,
drafts, feedback from other students, assembling zine together, handing out photocopied
zines, trying to distribute it locally or/and via distros
- writing of zine
screening of the video Grrlyshow by Kara Harold: http://www.grrlyshow.com.
18 min, 2001 (distributed by Women Make Movies, http://www.wmm.com/)
or/and D.I.Y. Or Die: How To Survive as an Independent Artist by Michael
Dean (Spanning a whole range of media including music, film, performance art,
graphic design and publishing) 2003?.
workshop in one afternoon:
- making a zine together: showing zines, explaining
what and why, history, everybody does a page, photocopying
questions to discuss:
- What are the differences between mainstream
media and alternative media?
- How are zines used as a tool of self-discovery
- What will be the future of zines? Will print zines disappear?
How do I make a zine/e-zine?
Questions and Answers about Zines
from the Action Girl Newsletter: http://www.houseoffun.com/action/zines/qanda.html
How to do your own zine from the Action Girl Newsletter
Sarah Dyers advice on zine etiquette: http://www.houseoffun.com/action/zines/ordering.html
Starting zines/e-zines (Chip Rowe): http://zinebook.com/roll.html
E-Zine Tips & Tricks: http://www.zinebook.com/directory/ezine-help.html
More on zine pedagogy:
Stay Free! High School Media Literacy Curriculum (http://www.stayfreemagazine.org/ml/)
and their Class Zine Project: http://www.stayfreemagazine.org/ml/assignments/zines.pdf
Resistant Writers Through Zines in the Classroom by Judith Williamsonhttp
G. CONGDON AND DOUG BLANDY: Zinesters in the Classroom: Using Zines to Teach about
Postmodernism and the Communication of Ideas. Art Education 56, no3, 44-52,
J. WAN: Not Just for Kids Anymore: Using Zines in the Classroom. Radical Teacher,
no55, 15-19, 1999.